I have seen repeated efforts in Europe to collaborate on defence projects, ostensibly to reduce costs and build capability - very few achieve that. The EU likes to make grand announcements, time will tell if this one leads to anything concrete or steel.

The project is catchily titled ‘PESCO’ - or “permanent structured co-operation; which is intended to give the EU a new method of improving their defence capabilities. One easy step would be to remove, if not reduce, the bureaucracy associated with troop movements within NATO; which is often claimed to inhibit mobilization.

There remain profound differences on security policy, not least whether NATO remains the primary method for having security. Let alone the capacity of several nations to commit money.

Hopefully this wider commentary on Europe in the FT helps:https://www.ft.com/content/ec5983aa-...3-c63fdc9b8c6c

In the UK for many it will confirm the deeply held suspicion that the EU wants to become a federal state or a "super state". Which was dismissed as ever being likely.