Dr. Pamela Ruiz is a Postdoctoral Fellow at New York University’s Behavioral Sciences Training in Drug Abuse Research. She earned her doctorate in Criminal Justice from John Jay College of Criminal Justice/The Graduate Center, CUNY. Her dissertation examined the evolution of Barrio 18 and MS-13 in the northern countries of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras). She holds an M.A. in Social Science with a concentration in Demography and Social Analysis and two B.A. degrees, one in Chicano/Latino Studies and another in Cognitive Psychology from the University of California, Irvine. Pam is a former US Fulbright Fellow and Dean K. Harrison Fellow, for which she lived in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. Previously, she was a Senior Consultant with Booz Allen Hamilton working with the Department of Defense at the National Defense University.